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 adb devices   

 list all connected devices

 adb push <local> <remote>

 copy file/dir to device

 adb pull <remote> [<local>]

 copy file/dir from device

 adb sync [ <directory> ]

 copy host->device only if changed

 adb shell

 run remote shell interactively

 adb shell <command>

 run remote shell command

 adb emu <command>

 run emulator console command

 adb logcat [ <filter-spec> ]

 View device log

 adb forward <local> <remote>

localabstract:<unix domain socket name>
localreserved:<unix domain socket name>
localfilesystem:<unix domain socket name>
dev:<character device name>
jdwp:<process pid> (remote only)

 forward socket connections forward specs are one of: tcp:<port>

 adb jdwp 

 list PIDs of processes hosting a JDWP transport

 adb install [-l] [-r] [-s] <file> push this package file to the device and install it
 adb uninstall [-k] <package> remove this app package from the device (‘-k’ means keep the data and cache directories)
 adb bugreport return all information from the device that should be included in a bug report.
 adb help show this help message
 adb version show version num
 adb wait-for-device block until device is online
 adb start-server ensure that there is a server running
 adb kill-server

 kill the server if it is running

 adb get-state prints: offline | bootloader | device
 adb get-serialno

 prints: <serial-number>

 adb status-window continuously print device status for a specified device
 adb remount remounts the /system partition on the device read-write
 adb reboot [bootloader|recovery] reboots the device, optionally into the bootloader or recovery program
 adb reboot-bootloader

 reboots the device into the bootloader

 adb root

 restarts the adbd daemon with root permissions

 adb usb  restarts the adbd daemon listening on USB
 adb tcpip <port> 

 restarts the adbd daemon listening on TCP on the specified port




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Download Provider

Download Provider

Contents


High-level requirements

Requirements for Android

Req# Description Detailed Requirements Status
DLMGR_A_1 The Download Manager MUST satisfy the basic download needs of OTA Updates.   YES done in 1.0
DLMGR_A_2 The Download Manager MUST satisfy the basic download needs of Market.   YES done in 1.0
DLMGR_A_3 The Download Manager MUST satisfy the basic download needs of Gmail.   YES done in 1.0
DLMGR_A_4 The Download Manager MUST satisfy the basic download needs of the Browser.   YES done in 1.0
DLMGR_A_5 Downloads MUST happen and continue in the background, independently of the application in front.   YES done in 1.0
DLMGR_A_6 Downloads MUST be reliable even on unreliable network connections, within the capabilities of the underlying protocol and of the server.   YESne in 1.0
DLMGR_A_7 User-accessible files MUST be stored on the external storage card, and only files that are explicitly supported by an installed application must be downloaded.  /td> YES done in 1.0
DLMGR_A_8 OMA downloads SHOULD be supported.   NO deferred beyond Cupcake (not enough time)
DLMGR_A_9 The Download Manager SHOULD only download when using high-speed (3G/wifi) links, or only when not roaming (if that can be detected).   NO erred beyond Cupcake (not enough time)
DLMGR_A_10 Downloads SHOULD be user-controllable (if allowed by the initiating application), including pause, resume, and restart of failed downloads. 4001 NO

Requirements for Cupcake

Req# Description Detailed Requirements Status
DLMGR_C_1 The Download Manager SHOULD resume downloads where the socket got cleanly closed while the download was incomplete (common behavior on proxies and Google servers) 5 YES done in Cupcake
DLMGR_C_2 The Download Manager SHOULD retry/resume downloads instead of aborting when the server returns a HTTP code 503 2006 YES done in Cupcake
DLMGR_C_3 The Download Manager SHOULD randomize the retry delay 2007 YES done in Cupcake
DLMGR_C_4 The Download Manager SHOULD use the retry-after header (delta-seconds) for 503 responses 2008 YES done in Cupcake
DLMGR_C_5 The Download Manager MAY hide columns that aren't strictly necessary 1010 YES done in Cupcake
DLMGR_C_6 The Download Manager SHOULD allow the initiating app to pause an ongoing download 1011 YES done in Cupcake
DLMGR_C_7 The Download Manager SHOULD not display multiple notification icons for completed downloads. 4002 NO deferred beyond Cupcake (no precise cifications, need framework support)
DLMGR_C_8 The Download Manager SHOULD delete old files from /cache 3006 NO deferred beyond Cupcake (no precise specifications)
DLMGR_C_9 The Download Manager SHOULD handle redirects 2009 YES done in Cupcake

Requirements for Donut

Req# Description Detailed Requirements Status

Technology Evaluation

ALSO See also future directions for possible additional technical changes.

Possible scope for Cupcake

Because there is no testing environment in place in the 1.0 code, and because the schedule between 1.0 and Cupcake doesn't leave enough time to develop a testing environment solid enough to be able to test the database upgrades from 1.0 database scheme to a new scheme, any work done in Cupcake will have to work within the existing 1.0 database scheme.

Reducing the number of classes

Each class in the system has a measurable RAM cost (because of the associated Class objects), and therefore reducing the number of classes when possible or relevant can reduce the memory requirements. That being said, classes that extend system classes and are necessary for the operation of the download manager can't be removed.

Class Comments
com.android.providers.downloads.Constants Only contains constants, can be merged into another class.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadFileInfo Should be merged with DownloadInfo.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadInfo Once we only store information in RAM about downloads that are explicitly active, can be merged with DownloadThread/td>
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadNotification Looks like it could be merged with DownloadProvider or DownloadService.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadNotification.NotificationItem Can probably be eliminated by using queries intelligently.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadProvider Extends ContentProvider, can't be eliminated.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadProvider.DatabaseHelper Can probably be eliminated by re-implementing by hand the logic of SQLiteOpenHelper.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadProvider.ReadOnlyCursorWrapper Can be eliminated once Cursor is read-only system-wide.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadReceiver Extends BroadcastReceiver, can't be eliminated.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadService Extends Service, unlikely that this can be eliminated. TBD.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadService.DownloadManagerContentObserver Extends ContentObserver, can be eliminated if the download manager can be re-hitected to not depend on ContentObserver any more.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadService.MediaScannerConnection Can probably be merged into another class.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadService.UpdateThread Can probably be made to implement Runnable instead and merged into another class, can be minated if the download manager can be re-architected to not depend on ContentObserver any more.
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadThread Can probably be made to implement Runnable instead. Unclear whether this can be eliminated as we will probably d one object that represents an ongoing download (unless the entire state can be stored on the stack with primitive types, which is unlikely).
com.android.providers.downloads.Helpers Can't be instantiated, can be merged into another class.
com.android.providers.downloads.Helpers.Lexer Keeps state about an ongoing lex, can probably be merged into another class by making the lexer synchronized, ce the operation is short-lived.

Reducing the list of visible columns

Security in the download provider is primarily enforced with two separate mechanisms:

  • Column restrictions, such that only a small number of the download provider's columns can be read or queried by applications.
  • UID restrictions, such that only the application that initiated a download can access information about that download.

The first mechanism is expected to be fairly robust (the implementation is quite simple, based on projection maps, which are highly structured), but the second one relies on arbitrary strings (URIs and SQL fragments) passed by applications and is therefore at a higher risk of being compromised. Therefore, sensitive information stored in unrestricted columns (for which the first mechanism doesn't apply) is at a greater risk than other information.

Here's the list of columns that can currently be read/queried, with comments:

Column Notes
_ID Needs to be visible so that the app can uniquely identify downloads. No security concern: those numbers are sequential and aren't hard to guess.
_DATA Probably should not be visible to applications. WARNING Security concern: This holds filenames, including those of private files. While file permissions are posed to kick in and protect the files, hiding private filenames deeper in would probably be a reasonable idea.
MIMETYPE Needs to be visible so that app can display the icon matching the mime type. Intended to be visible by 3rd-party download UIs. TODO Security TBD before we lement support for 3rd-party UIs.
VISIBILITY Needs to be visible in case an app has both visible and invisible downloads. No obvious security concern.
DESTINATION Needs to be visible in case an app has multiple destinations and wants to distinguish between them. Also used internally by the download manager. No obvious urity concern.
STATUS Needs to be visible (1004). No obvious security concern.
LAST_MODIFICATION Needs to be visible, e.g. so that apps can sort downloads by date of last activity, or discard old downloads. No obvious security concern.
NOTIFICATION_PACKAGE Allows individual apps running under shared UIDs to identify their own downloads. No security concern: can be queried through package manager.
NOTIFICATION_CLASS See NOTIFICATION_PACKAGE.
TOTAL_BYTES Needs to be visible so that the app can display a progress bar. No obvious security concern. Intended to be visible by 3rd-party download UIs.
CURRENT_BYTES See TOTAL_BYTES.
TITLE Intended to be visible by 3rd-party download UIs. TODO Security and Privacy TBD before we implement support for 3rd-party UIs.
DESCRIPTION See TITLE.

Hiding the URI column

The URI column is visible to the initiating application, which is a mild security risk. It should be hidden, but the OTA update mechanism relies on it to check duplicate downloads and to play the download that's currently ongoing in the settings app. If another string column was exposed to the initiating applications, the OTA update mechanism could use that one, and URI could n be hidden. For Cupcake, without changing the database schema, the ENTITY column could be re-used as it's currently unused.

Handling redirects

There are two important aspects to handle redirects:

  • Storing the intermediate URIs in the provider.
  • Protecting against redirect loops.

If the URI column gets hidden, it could be used to store the intermediate URIs. After 1.0 the only available integer columns were METHOD and CONTROL. CONTROL was re-exposed to applications and can't be used. METHOD is slated to be re-used for 503 retry-after delays. It could be split into two halves, one for retry-after and one for the redirect nt. It would make more sense to count the redirect loop with FAILED_CONNECTIONS, but since there's already quite some code using it it'd take a bit more effort. Ideally handling of redirects ld be delayed until a future release, with a cleanup of the database schema (going along with the cleanup of the handling of filenames).

Because of the pattern used to read/write DownloadInfo and DownloadProvider, it's impractical to store multiple small integers into a large one. Therefore, since there are no eger columns left in the database, redirects will have to wait beyond Cupcake.

ContentProvider for download UI

In order to allow a UI that can "see" all the relevant downloads, there'll need to be a separate URI (or set of URIs) in the content provider: trying to use the exact same URIs for regular download control for UI purposes (distinguishing them based on the permissions of the caller) will break down if a same app (or actually a same UID) tries to do both. It'll also break down if the system process tries to do ular download activities, since it has all permissions.

Beyond that, there's little technical challenge: there are already mechanisms in place to restrict the list of columns that can be inserted, queried and updated (inserting of course makes no sense through UI channel), they just need to be duplicated for the case of the UI. The download provider also knows how to check the permissions of its caller, there isn't anything new here.

Getting rid of OTHER_UID

Right now OTHER_UID is used by checkin/update to allow the settings app to display the name of an ongoing OTA update, and by Market to allow the system to install the new apks. It is however a gerous feature, at least because it touches a part of the code that is critical to the download manager security (separation of applications).

Getting rid of OTHER_UID would be beneficial for the download manager, but the existing functionality has to be worked around. At this point, the idea that I consider the most likely would be have checkin and market implement =ContentProvider= wrappers around their downloads, and expose those content providers to whichever app they want, with whichever security mechanism they wish to have.

Only using SDK APIs.

It'd be good if the download manager could be built against the SDK as much as possible.

Here's the list of APIs as of Nov 5 2008 that aren't in the current public API but that are used by the download manager:

com.google.android.collect.Lists
android.drm.mobile1.DrmRawContent
android.media.IMediaScannerService
android.net.http.AndroidHttpClient
android.os.FileUtils
android.provider.DrmStore

Schedule

  • No future milestones currently defined

Detailed Requirements

<> Codes 3xx weren't considered relevant when those requirements were written

Req# History Status Feature Description Notes
1xxx N/A   API    
1001 1.0 YES   Download Manager API The download manager provides an API that allows applications to initiate downloads.  
1002 1.0 YES   Cookies The download manager API allows applications to pass cookies to the download manager.  
1003 1.0 YES   Security The download manager provides a mechanism that prevents arbitrary applications from accessing meta-data about rent and past downloads. In 1.0, known holes between apps
1004 1.0 YES   Status to Initiator The download manager allows the application initiating a download to query the status of that download.  
1005 1.0 YES   Cancel by Initiator The download manager allows the application initiating a download to cancel that download. &p;
1006 1.0 YES   Notify Initiator The download manager notifies the application initiating a download when the download completes (with cess or failure)  
1007 1.0 YES   Fire and Forget The download manager does not rely on the initiating application when saving the file to a shared filesystem a  
1008 1.0 YES   Short User-Readable Description The download manager allows the initiating application to optionally provide a user-readable rt description of the download  
1009 1.0 YES   Long User-Readable Description The download manager allows the initiating application to optionally provide a user-readable l description of the download  
1010 Cupcake YES Cupcake P3 YES Restrict column access The download provider doesn't allow access to columns that aren't strictly essary.  
1011 Cupcake YES Cupcake P2 YES Pause downloads The download provider allows the application initiating a download to pause that download.td>  
2xxx N/A   HTTP    
2001 1.0 YES   HTTP Support The download manager supports all the features of HTTP 1.1 (RFC 2616) that are relevant to file downloads.
2002 1.0 YES   Resume Downloads The download manager resumes downloads that get interrupted.  
2003 1.0 YES   Flaky Downloads The download manager has mechanism that prevent excessive retries of downloads that consistently fail or get errupted.  
2004 1.0 YES   Resume after Reboot The download manager resumes downloads across device reboots.  
2005 Cupcake YES Cupcake P2 YES Resume after socket closed The download manager resumes incomplete downloads after the socket gets anly closed This is necessary in order to reliably download through GFEs, though it pushes us further away from being able to download from servers that don't implement pipelining.
2006 Cupcake YES Cupcake P2 YES Resume after 503 The download manager resumes or retries downloads when the server returns an HTTP code  
2007 Cupcake YES Cupcake P2 YES Random retry delay The download manager uses partial randomness when retrying downloads on an exponential koff pattern.  
2008 Cupcake YES Cupcake P2 YES Retry-after delta-seconds The download manager uses the retry-after header in a 503 response to decide n to retry the request Handling of absolute dates will be covered by a separate requirement.
2009 Cupcake YES Cupcake P2 YES Redirects The download manager handles common redirects.  
25xx N/A   HTTP/Conditions    
3xxx N/A   Storage    
3001 1.0 YES   File Storage The download manager stores the results of downloads in persistent storage.  
3002 1.0 YES   Max File Size The download manager is able to handle large files (order of magnitude: 50MB)  
3003 1.0 YES   Destination File Permissions The download manager restricts access to the internal storage to applications with the ropriate permissions  
3004 1.0 YES   Initiator File Access The download manager allows the initiating application to access the destination file   d>
3005 1.0 YES   File Types The download manager does not save files that can't be displayed by any currently installed application sp;
3006 Cupcake NO Cupcake P3 NO Old Files in /cache The download manager deletes old files in /cache  
35xx N/A   Storage/Filename    
4xxx N/A   UI    
4001 1.0 NO   Download Manager UI The download manager provides a UI that lets user get information about current downloads and control them.td> Didn't get spec on time to be able to even consider it.
4002 Cupcake NO Cupcake P2 NO Single Notification Icon The download manager displays a single icon in the notification bar regardless of number of ongoing and completed downloads. No spec in Cupcake timeframe.
5xxx N/A   MIME    
52xx N/A   MIME/DRM    
5201 1.0 YES   DRM The download manager respects the DRM information it receives with the responses  
54xx N/A   MIME/OMA    
60xx N/A   Misc    
65xx N/A   Misc/Browser    

System Architecture

+----------------------+    +--------------------------------------+    +-------------+
|                      |    |                                      |    |             |
|   Download Manager   |    |  Browser / Gmail / Market / Updater  |    |  Viewer App |
|                      |    |                                      |    |             |
+----------------------+    +--------------------------------------+    +-------------+
    ^    |    ^                                             ^                ^
    |    |    |                                             |                |
    |    |    |                                             |                |
    |    |    |      +---------------------------+          |                |
    |    |    |      |                           |          |                |
    |    |    |      |                           |          |                |
    |    |    +-------- - - - - - - - - - - - - ------------+                |
    |    |           |                           |                           |
    |    |           |                           |                           |
    |    +------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - -----------------------------+
    |                |                           |
    |                |                           |
    +--------------->|     Android framework     |
                     |                           |
                     |                           |
                     +---------------------------+

          Application                        Download Manager                         Viewer App
               |                                     |                                     |
               |         initiate download           |                                     |
               |------------------------------------>|                                     |
               |<------------------------------------|                                     |
               |        content provider URI         |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |           query download            |                                     |
               |------------------------------------>|                                     |
               |<------------------------------------|                                     |
               |              Cursor                 |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |       register ContentObserver      |                                     |
               |------------------------------------>|                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |     ContentObserver notification    |                                     |
               |<------------------------------------|                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |    intent "notification clicked"    |                                     |
               |<------------------------------------|                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |      intent "download complete"     |                                     |
               |<------------------------------------|                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |            intent "view"            |
               |                                     |------------------------------------>|
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |           update download           |                                     |
               |------------------------------------>|                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |         open downloaded file        |                                     |
               |------------------------------------>|                                     |
               |<------------------------------------|                                     |
               |         ParcelFileDescriptor        |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |           delete download           |                                     |
               |------------------------------------>|                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               |                                     |                                     |
               v                                     v                                     v

Internal Product Dependencies

  • [reverse dependency] GMail depends on the download manager to download attachments.
  • [reverse dependency] OTA Update depends on the download manager to download system images.
  • [reverse dependency] Vending Machine depends on the download manager to download content.
  • [reverse dependency] Browser depends on the download manager to download non-browsable.
  • Download Manager depends on a notification system to let the user know when downloads complete or otherwise require attention.
  • Download Manager depends on a mechanism to share files with another app (letting apps access its files, or accessing apps' files).
  • Download Manager depends on the ability to associate individual downloads with separate applications and to restrict apps to only access their own downloads.
  • Download Manager depends on an HTTP stack that predictably processes all relevant kinds of HTTP requests and responses.
  • Download Manager depends on a connectivity manager that reports accurate information about the status of the different data connections.

Interface Documentation

WARNING Since none of those APIs are public, they are all subject to change. If you're working in the Android source tree, do NOT use the explicit values, ONLY use the symbolic stants, unless you REALLY know what you're doing and are willing to deal with the consequences; you've been warned.

The various constants that are meant to be used by applications are all defined in the android.provider.Downloads class. Whenever possible, the constants should be used instead of the explicit ues.

Permissions

Constant name Permission name Access restrictions Description
Downloads.PERMISSION_ACCESS "android.permission.ACCESS_DOWNLOAD_MANAGER" Signature or System Applications that want to access the nload Manager MUST have this permission.
Downloads.PERMISSION_ACCESS_ADVANCED "android.permission.ACCESS_DOWNLOAD_MANAGER_ADVANCED" Signature or System This permission protects e legacy APIs that new applications SHOULD NOT use.
Downloads.PERMISSION_CACHE "android.permission.ACCESS_CACHE_FILESYSTEM" Signature This permission allows an app to access the /cache esystem, and is only needed by the Update code. Other applications SHOULD NOT use this permission
Downloads.PERMISSION_SEND_INTENTS "android.permission.SEND_DOWNLOAD_COMPLETED_INTENTS" Signature The download manager holds this mission, and the receivers through which applications get intents of completed downloads SHOULD require this permission from the sender

Content Provider

The primary interface that applications use to communicate with the download manager is exposed as a ContentProvider.

URIs

The URIs for the Content Provider are:

Constant name URI Description
Downloads.CONTENT_URI Uri.parse("content://downloads/download") The URI of the whole Content Provider, used to insert new rows, or to query all rows.td>
N/A ContentUris.withAppendedId(CONTENT_URI, <id>) The URI of an individual download. <id> is the value of the Download._ID umn

Columns

The following columns are available:

Constant name Column name SQL Type Access Description Notes
Downloads._ID "_id" Integer Read   Inherited from BaseColumns._ID.
Downloads.URI "uri" Text Init   Used to be readable.
Downloads.APP_DATA "entity" Text Init/Read/Modify   Actual column name will change in the future.
Downloads.NO_INTEGRITY "no_integrity" Boolean Init   Used to be readable.
Downloads.FILENAME_HINT "hint" Text Init   Used to be readable.
Downloads._DATA "_data" Text Read   Used to be Downloads.FILENAME and "filename".
Downloads.MIMETYPE "mimetype" Text Init/Read    
Downloads.DESTINATION "destination" Integer Init   See Destination codes for ails of legal values. Used to be readable.
Downloads.VISIBILITY "visibility" Integer Init/Read/Modify   See Visibility codes
Downloads.CONTROL "control" Integer Init/Read/Modify   See Control codes for ails of legal values.
Downloads.STATUS "status" Integer Read   See Status codes for details of possible ues.
Downloads.LAST_MODIFICATION "lastmod" Bigint Read    
Downloads.NOTIFICATION_PACKAGE "notificationpackage" Text Init/Read    
Downloads.NOTIFICATION_CLASS "notificationclass" Text Init/Read    
Downloads.NOTIFICATION_EXTRAS "notificationextras" Text Init    
Downloads.COOKIE_DATA "cookiedata" Text Init    
Downloads.USER_AGENT "useragent" Text Init    
Downloads.REFERER "referer" Text Init    
Downloads.TOTAL_BYTES "total_bytes" Integer Read   Might gain Init access in the future.
Downloads.CURRENT_BYTES "current_bytes" Integer Read    
Downloads.OTHER_UID "otheruid" Integer Init   Requires the android.permission.ESS_DOWNLOAD_MANAGER_ADVANCED permission. Used to be readable and writable. Might disappear entirely if possible.
Downloads.TITLE "title" String Init/Read/Modify    
Downloads.DESCRIPTION "description" String Init/Read/Modify    

Destination Values

Constants name Constant value Description Notes
Downloads.DESTINATION_EXTERNAL 0 Saves the file to the SD card. Default value. Fails is SD card is not present.
Downloads.DESTINATION_CACHE_PARTITION 1 Saves the file to the internal cache partition. Requires the "android.permission.ESS_DOWNLOAD_MANAGER_ADVANCED" permission
Downloads.DESTINATION_CACHE_PARTITION_PURGEABLE 2 Saves the file to the internal cache partition. The download can get deleted at any e by the download manager when it needs space.

Visibility Values

Constants name Constant value Description Notes
Downloads.VISIBILITY_VISIBLE_NOTIFY_COMPLETED 0 The download is visible in download UIs, and it shows up in the notification area during download after completion. Default value for external downloads.
Downloads.VISIBILITY_VISIBLE 1 The download is visible in download UIs, and it shows up in the notification area during download but not after pletion.  
Downloads.VISIBILITY_HIDDEN 2 The download is hidden from download UIs and doesn't show up in the notification area. Default value for ernal downloads.

Control Values

Constants name Constant value Description Notes
Downloads.CONTROL_RUN 0 The download is allowed to run. Default value.
Downloads.CONTROL_PAUSED 0 The download is paused.  

Status Values

<> <>

Constants name Constant value Description Notes
Downloads.STATUS_PENDING 190 Download hasn't started.  
Downloads.STATUS_PENDING_PAUSED 191 Download hasn't started and can't start immediately (network unavailable, paused by user). Not rently used.
Downloads.STATUS_RUNNING 192 Download has started and is running  
Downloads.STATUS_RUNNING_PAUSED 193 Download has started, but can't run at the moment (network unavailable, paused by user).  
Downloads.STATUS_SUCCESS 200 Download completed successfully.  
Downloads.STATUS_BAD_REQUEST 400 Couldn't initiate the request, or server response 400.  
Downloads.STATUS_NOT_ACCEPTABLE 406 No handler to view the file (external downloads), or server response 406. External downloads are nt to be user-visible, and are aborted if there's no application to handle the relevant MIME type.
Downloads.STATUS_LENGTH_REQUIRED 411 The download manager can't know the length of the download. Because of the unreliability of cell works, the download manager only performs downloads when it can verify that it has received all the data for a download, except if the initiating app sets the Downloads.NO_INTEGRITY flag.
Downloads.STATUS_PRECONDITION_FAILED 412 The download manager can't resume an interrupted download, because it didn't receive enough information m the server to be able to resume.  
Downloads.STATUS_CANCELED 490 The download was canceled by a cause outside the Download Manager. Formerly known as Downloads.TUS_CANCELLED. Might be impossible to observe in 1.0.
Downloads.STATUS_UNKNOWN_ERROR 491 The download was aborted because of an unknown error. Formerly known as Downloads.STATUS_ERROR. Typically the result of a runtime exception that is not explicitly handled.
Downloads.STATUS_FILE_ERROR 492 The download was aborted because the data couldn't be saved. Most commonly happens when the filesystem is l.
Downloads.STATUS_UNHANDLED_REDIRECT 493 The download was aborted because the server returned a redirect code 3xx that the download manager doesn't dle. The download manager currently handles 301, 302 and 307.
Downloads.STATUS_TOO_MANY_REDIRECTS 494 The download was aborted because the download manager received too many redirects while trying to find the ual file.  
Downloads.STATUS_UNHANDLED_HTTP_CODE 495 The download was aborted because the server returned a status code that the download manager doesn't handle.td> Standard codes 3xx, 4xx and 5xx don't trigger this.
Downloads.STATUS_HTTP_DATA_ERROR 496 The download was aborted because of an unrecoverable error trying to get data over the network. ically this happens when the download manager received several I/O Exceptions in a row while the network is available and without being able to download any data.
  4xx standard HTTP/1.1 4xx codes returned by the server are used as-is. Don't rely on non-standard values being passed through, especially the her values that would collide with download manager codes.
  5xx standard HTTP/1.1 5xx codes returned by the server are used as-is. Don't rely on non-standard values being passed through.

Status Helper Functions

Function signature Description
public static boolean Downloads.isStatusInformational(int status) Returns whether the status code matches a download that hasn't completed yet.
public static boolean Downloads.isStatusSuspended(int status) Returns whether the download hasn't completed yet but isn't currently making progress.
public static boolean Downloads.isStatusSuccess(int status) Returns whether the download successfully completed.
public static boolean Downloads.isStatusError(int status) Returns whether the download failed.
public static boolean Downloads.isStatusClientError(int status) Returns whether the download failed because of a client error.
public static boolean Downloads.isStatusServerError(int status) Returns whether the download failed because of a server error.
public static boolean Downloads.isStatusCompleted(int status) Returns whether the download completed (with no distinction between success and failure).

Intents

The download manager sends an intent broadcast Downloads.DOWNLOAD_COMPLETED_ACTION when a download completes.

The download manager sends an intent broadcast Downloads.NOTIFICATION_CLICKED_ACTION when the user clicks a download notification that doesn't match a download that can be opened (e.g. because notification is for several downloads at a time, or because it's for an incomplete download, or because it's for a private download).

The download manager starts an activity with Intent.ACTION_VIEW when the user clicks a download notification that matches a download that can be opened.

Differences between 1.0 and Cupcake

WARNING These are the differences for apps built from source in the Android source tree, i.e. they don't cover any of the cases of binary incompatibility.

  • Cursors returned by the content provider are now read-only.
  • SQL "where" statements are now verified and must follow a rigid syntax (the most visible aspect being that all parameters much be single-quoted).
  • Columns and constants that were unused or ineffective are gone: METHOD, NO_SYSTEM_FILES, DESTINATION_DATA_CACHE, OTA_UPDATE.
  • OTHER_UID and DESTINATION_CACHE_PARTITION require android.permission.ACCESS_DOWNLOAD_MANAGER_ADVANCED.
  • The list of columns that can be queried and read is limited: _ID, APP_DATA, _DATA, MIMETYPE, CONTROL, STATUS, T_MODIFICATION, NOTIFICATION_PACKAGE, NOTIFICATION_CLASS, TOTAL_BYTES, CURRENT_BYTES, TITLE, DESCRIPTION.
  • The list of columns that can be initialized by apps is limited: URI, APP_DATA, NO_INTEGRITY, FILENAME_HINT, MIMETYPE, DESTINATION, VISIBILITY, CONTROL, STATUS, LAST_MODIFICATION, NOTIFICATION_PACKAGE, NOTIFICATION_CLASS, NOTIFICATION_EXTRAS, COOKIE_DATA, USER_AGENT, REFERER, OTHER_UID, TITLE, DESCRIPTION.
  • The list of columns that can be updated by apps is limited: APP_DATA, VISIBILITY, CONTROL, TITLE, DESCRIPTION.
  • Downloads to the SD card default to have notifications that are visible after completion, internal downloads default to notifications that are always hidden.
  • The constant FILENAME was renamed Downloads._DATA.
  • Downloads can be paused and resumed by writing to the CONTROL column. Downloads.CONTROL_RUN (Default) makes the download go, Downloads.CONTROL_PAUSED pauses it.
  • New column APP_DATA that is untouched by the download manager, used to store app-specific info about the downloads.
  • Minor differences unlikely to affect applications:
    • The notification class/package must now match the UID.
    • The backdoor to see the entire provider (which was intended to implement UIs) is gone.
    • Private column names were removed from the public API.

Writing code that works on both the 1.0 and Cupcake versions of the download manager.

If you're not 100% sure that you need to be reading this chapter, don't read it.

Basic rule: don't use features that only exist in one of the two implementations (POST, downloads to /data...).

Also, don't use columns in 1.0 that are protected or hidden in Cupcake.

Unfortunately, that's not always entirely possible.

Areas of concern:

  • Some columns were renamed. FILENAME became Downloads._DATA ("_data"), and ENTITY became APP_DATA ("entity").
    • The difference can be used to distinguish between 1.0 and Cupcake, though reflection.
    • The difference prevents from using any of the symbolic constants directly in source code: if the same binary wants to run on both 1.0 and Cupcake, it will have to hard-code the values of those stants or use reflection to get to them.
  • URI column accessible in 1.0 but protected in Cupcake. Code that relies on being able to re-read its URI should be using APP_DATA in Cupcake, but that column doesn't exist as such in 1.0.
    • If the code detects that it's running on Cupcake, write URI to APP_DATA in addition to URI, and query and read from the appropriate column.
    • Since the underlying column for APP_DATA exists in both 1.0 and Cupcake even though it has different names, it can actually be used in both cases (see note above about renamed columns).
  • Some of the error codes have been renumbered. STATUS_UNHANDLED_HTTP_CODE and STATUS_HTTP_DATA_ERROR were bumped up from 494 and 495 to 495 and 496.
  • Backward compatibility is not guaranteed: the download manager APIs weren't meant to be backward compatible yet. As such it's impossible to guarantee that code that uses the Cupcake download manager l be binary-compatible with future versions.
    • I intend to eventually change the column name for APP_DATA to "app_data". Because of that, code should use reflection to get to that name instead of hard-coding "entity", so that it always gets the ht value for the string.
    • I intend to refine the handling of filenames and content URIs, exposing separate columns for situations where a download can be accessed both as a file and through a content URI (e.g. stuff that is ognized by the media scanner). Unfortunately at this point this feature isn't clear in my mind. I'd recommend using reflection to look for the Downloads._DATA column, and if it isn't there to look for the ENAME column (which has the advantage of also dealing with the difference between 1.0 and Cupcake).
    • I intend to renumber the error codes, especially those in the 4xx range, and especially those below 490 (which overlap with standard HTTP error codes but will probably be separated). Reflection would rove the probability to getting to them in the future. Unfortunately, the names of the constants are likely to change in the process, in order to disambiguate codes coming from HTTP from those generated ally. I might try to stick to the following pattern: where a constant is currently named STATUS_XXX, its locally-generated version in the future might be named STATUS_LOCAL_XXX while the current constant e might disappear. Using reflection to try to get to the possible new name instead of using the old name might improve the probability of compatibility in the future. That being said, it is critically ortant to properly handle the full ranges or error codes, especially the 4xx range, as "expected" errors, and it is far preferable to not try to distinguish between those codes at all: use the functions nloads.isError and Downloads.isClientError to easily recognize those entire ranges. In order of probability, the 1xx range is the second most likely to be affected.

Functional Specification

All the details about what the product does.

TODO

Release notes for Cupcake

  • HTTP codes 301, 302, 303 and 307 (redirects) are now supported
  • HTTP code 503 is now handled, with support for retry-after in delay-seconds
  • Downloads that were cleanly interrupted are now resumed instead of failing
  • Applications can now pause their downloads
  • Retry delays are now randomized
  • Connectivity is now checked on all interfaces
  • Downloads with invalid characters in file name can now be saved
  • Various security fixes
  • Minor API changes (see API differences between 1.0 and Cupcake)

Product Architecture

How the tasks are split between the different modules that implement the product/feature.

TODO To be completed

Class
com.android.providers.downloads.Constants
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadFileInfo
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadInfo
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadNotification
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadNotification.NotificationItem
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadProvider extends ContentProvider
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadProvider.DatabaseHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadProvider.ReadOnlyCursorWrapper extends CursorWrapper implements CrossProcessCursor
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadService extends Service
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadService.DownloadManagerContentObserver extends ContentObserver
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadService.MediaScannerConnection implements ServiceConnection
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadService.UpdateThread extends Thread
com.android.providers.downloads.DownloadThread extends Thread
com.android.providers.downloads.Helpers
com.android.providers.downloads.Helpers.Lexer

The download manager is built primarily around a ContentProvider and a Service. The ContentProvider part is the front end, i.e. applications communicate with the download manager through the provider. The vice part is the back end, which contains the actual download logic, running as a background process.

As a first approach, the provider is essentially a canonical provider backed by a SQLite3 database. The biggest difference between the download provider and a "plain" provider is that the download provider ressively validates its inputs, for security reasons.

The service is a background process that performs the actual downloads as requested by the applications. The service doesn't offer any bindable interface, the service object exists strictly so that the tem knows how to prioritize the download manager's process against other processes when memory is tight.

Communication between the provider and the service is done through public Android APIs, so that the two components are deeply decoupled (they could in fact run in different processes). The download manager rts the service whenever a change is made that can start or restart a download. The service observes and queries the provider for changes, and updates the provider as the download progresses.

There are a few secondary classes that provide auxiliary functions.

A Receiver listens to several broadcasts. Is receives some system broadcasts when the system boots (so that the download manager can resume downloads that were interrupted when the system was turned off) or n the connectivity changes (so that the download manager can restart downloads that were interrupted when connectivity was lost). It also receives intents when the user selects a download notification.

Finally, some helper classes provide support functions.

Most significantly, DownloadThread is responsible for performing the actual downloads as part of the DownloadService's functionality, while UpdateThread is responsible for updating the DownloadInfo whenever DownloadProvider data changes.

DownloadInfo and DownloadFileInfo hold pure data structures, with little or no actual logic.

Lexer takes care of validating the snippets of SQL data that are received from applications, to avoid cases of SQL injection.

The service keeps a copy of the provider data in RAM, so that it can determine what changed in the provider when it receives a change notification through the ContentObserver. That data is kept in an array DownloadInfo structures.

Each DownloadThread performs the operations for a single download (or, more precisely, for a single HTTP transaction). Each DownloadThread is backed by a DownloadInfo object. which is in fact on of the ects kept by the DownloadService. While a download is running, the DownloadService can influence the download by writing data into the relevant DownloadInfo object, and the DownloadThread checks that object appropriate times during the download.

Because the DownloadService updates the DownloadInfo objects asynchronously from everything else (it uses a dedicated thread for that purpose), a lot of care has to be taken when upgrading the DownloadInfo ect. In fact, only the DownloadService's updateThread function can update that object, and it should be considered read-only to every other bit of code. Even within the updateThread function, some care must taken to ensure that the DownloadInfos don't get out of sync with the provider.

On the other hand, the DownloadService's updateThread function does upgrade the DownloadInfo when it spawns new DownloadThreads (and in a few more circumstances), and when it does that it must also update DownloadProvider (or risk seeing its DownloadInfo data get overwritten).

Because of all that, all code outside of the DowloadService's updateThread must neither read from DownloadProvider nor write to the DownloadInfo objects under any circumstances. The DownloadService's ateFunction is responsible for copying data from the DownloadProvider to the DownloadInfo objects, and must ensure that the DownloadProvider remains in sync with the information it writes into the nloadInfo objects.

Implementation Documentation

How individual modules are implemented.

TODO To be completed

Database formats

Android 1.0, format version 31, table downloads:

Column Type
"_id" INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT
"uri" TEXT
"method" INTEGER
"entity" TEXT
"no_integrity" BOOLEAN
"hint" TEXT
"otaupdate" BOOLEAN
"_data" TEXT
"mimetype" TEXT
"destination" INTEGER
"no_system" BOOLEAN
"visibility" INTEGER
"control" INTEGER
"status" INTEGER
"numfailed" INTEGER
"lastmod" BIGINT
"notificationpackage" TEXT
"notificationclass" TEXT
"notificationextras" TEXT
"cookiedata" TEXT
"useragent" TEXT
"referer" TEXT
"total_bytes" INTEGER
"current_bytes" INTEGER
"etag" TEXT
"uid" INTEGER
"otheruid" INTEGER
"title" TEXT
"description" TEXT
"scanned" BOOLEAN

Cupcake, format version 100: Same as format version 31.

Future Directions

WARNING This section is for informative purposes only.

API

  • Expose Download Manager to 3rd party apps - security, robustness .
  • Validate application-provided user agent, cookies, etc... to protect against e.g. header injection.
  • Allow trust-and-verify MIME type.
  • Extract response string from HTTP responses, extract entity from failed responses
  • If app fails to be notified, retry later - don't give up because of a single failure.
  • Support data: URIs .
  • Download files to app-provided content provider .
  • Don't pass HTTP codes above about 490 to the initiating app (figure out what the threshold should be).
  • Allow initiating app to specify that it wants wifi-only downloads .
  • Provide SQL "where" clauses for the different categories of status codes, matching isStatusXXX().
  • There has to be a mechanism by which old downloads are automatically purged from /cache if there's not enough space .
  • Clicking the notification for a completed download should go through the initiating app instead of directly opening the file (but what about fire and forget?).
  • Clean up the difference between pending_network (waiting for network) and running_paused (user paused the download).
  • Allow any app to access the downloaded file (but no other column) of user-downloaded files .
  • Provider should return more errors and throw fewer exceptions if possible.
  • Add option to auto-dismiss notifications for completed downloads after a given time .
  • Delete filename in case of failure - better handle the separation between filename and content URI.
  • Allow the initiating application to specify that it wants to restart downloads from scratch if they're interrupted and can't be resumed .
  • Save images directly from browser without re-downloading data .
  • Give applications the ability to explicitly specify the full target filename (not just a hint).
  • Give applications the ability to download multiple files into multiple set locations as if they were a single "package".
  • Give applications the ability to download files only if they haven't been already downloaded.
  • Give applications the ability to download files that have already been downloaded only if there's a newer version.
  • Set-cookie in the response.
  • basic auth .
  • app-provided prompts for basic auth, ssl, redirects.
  • File should be hidden from initiating application when DRM.
  • Delay writing of app-visible filename column until file visible (split user-visible vs private files?).
  • Separate locally-generated status codes from standard HTTP codes.
  • Allow app to specify it doesn't want to resume downloads across reboots (because they might require additional work).
  • Allow app to prioritize user-initiated downloads.
  • Allow app to specify length of download (full trust, or trust-and-verify).
  • Support POST.
  • Support PUT.
  • Support plugins for additional protocols and download descriptors.
  • Rename columns to have an appropriate COLUMN_ prefix.

HTTP Handling

  • Fail download immediately on authoritative unresolved hostnames .
  • The download manager should use the browser's user-agent by default.
  • Redirect with HTTP Refresh headers (download current and target content with non-zero refresh).
  • Handle content-encoding header.
  • Handle transfer-encoding header.
  • Find other ways to validate interrupted downloads (signature, last-mod/if-modified-since) .
  • Make downloads time out in case of long time with no activity.

File names

  • Protect against situations where there's already a "downloads" directory on SD card.
  • Deal with filenames with invalid characters.
  • Refine the logic that builds filenames to better match desktop browsers - drop the query string.
  • URI-decode filenames generated from URIs.
  • Better deal with filenames that end in '.'.
  • Deal with URIs that end in '/' or '?'.
  • Investigate how to better deal with filenames that have multiple extensions.

UI

  • Prompt for redirects across domains or cancel.
  • Prompt for redirects from SSL or cancel.
  • Prompt for basic auth or cancel.
  • Prompt for SSL with untrusted/invalid/expired certificates or cancel.
  • Reduce number of icons in the title bar, possibly as low as 1 (animated if there are ongoing downloads, fixed if all downloads have completed) .
  • UI to cancel visible downloads.
  • UI to pause visible downloads.
  • Reorder downloads.
  • View SSL certificates.
  • Indicate secure downloads.

Handling of specific MIME types

  • Parse HTML for redirects with meta tag.
  • Handle charsets and transcoding of text files.
  • Deal with multiparts.
  • Support OMA downloads with DD and data in same multipart, i.e. combined delivery.
  • Assume application/octet-stream for http responses with no mime type.
  • Download anything if an app supports application/octet-stream.
  • Download any text/* if an application supports text/plain.
  • Should the media scanner be invoked on DRM downloads?
  • Refresh header with timer should be followed if content is not downloadable.
  • Support OMA downloads.
  • Support MIDP-OTA downloads.
  • Support Sprint MCD downloads.
  • Sniff content when receiving MIME-types known to be inaccurately sent by misconfigured servers.

Management of downloads based on environment

  • If the device routinely connects over wifi, delay non-interactive downloads by a certain amount of time in case wifi becomes available
  • Turn on wifi if possible
  • Fall back to cell when wifi is available but download doesn't proceed
  • Be smarter about spurious losses (i.e. exceptions while network appears up) when the active network changes (e.g. turn on wifi while downloading over cell).
  • Investigate the use of wifi locks, especially when performing non-resumable downloads.
  • Poll network state (and maybe even try to connect) even without notifications from the connectivity manager (in case the notifications go AWOL or get inconsistent) .
  • Pause when conditions degrade .
  • Pause when roaming.
  • Throttle or pause when user is active.
  • Pause on slow networks (2G).
  • Pause when battery is low.
  • Throttle to not overwhelm the link.
  • Pause when sync is active.
  • Deal with situations where the active connection is down but there's another connection available
  • Download files at night when the user is not explicitly waiting.

Management of simultaneous downloads

  • Pipeline requests on limited number of sockets, run downloads sequentially .
  • Manage bandwidth to not starve foreground tasks.
  • Run unsized downloads on their own (on a per-filesystem basis) to avoid failing multiple of them because of a full filesystem .

Minor functional changes, edge cases

  • The database could be somewhat checked when it's opened.
  • [DownloadProvider.java] When upgrading the database, the numbering of ids should restart where it left off.
  • [DownloadProvider.java] Handle errors when failing to start the service.
  • [DownloadProvider.java] Explicitly populate all database columns that have documented default values, investigate whether that can be done at the SQL level.
  • [DownloadProvider.java] It's possible that the last update time should be updated by the Sevice logic, not by the content provider.
  • When relevant, combine logged messages on fewer lines.
  • [DownloadService.java] Trim the database in the provider, not in the service. Notify application when trimming. Investigate why the row count seems off by one. Enforce on an ongoing basis.
  • [DownloadThread.java] When download is restarted and MIME type wasn't provided by app, don't re-use MIME type.
  • [DownloadThread.java] Deal with mistmatched file data sizes (between database and filesystem) when resuming a download, or with missing files that should be here.
  • [DownloadThread.java] Validate that the response content-length can be properly parsed (i.e. presence of a string doesn't guarantee correctness).
  • [DownloadThread.java] Be finer-grained with the way file permissions are managed in /cache - don't 0644 everything .
  • Truncate files before deleting them, in case they're still open cross-process.
  • Restart from scratch downloads that had very little progress .
  • Deal with situations where /data is full as it prevents the database from growing (DoS) .
  • Wait until file scanned to notify that download is completed.
  • Missing some detailed logging about IOExceptions.
  • Allow to disable LOGD debugging independently from system setting.
  • Pulling the battery during a download corrupts files (lots of zeros written) .
  • Should keep a bit of "emergency" database storage to initiate the download of an OTA update, in a file that is pre-allocated whenever possible (how to know it's an OTA update?).
  • Figure out how to hook up into dumpsys and event log.
  • Use the event log to log download progress.
  • Use /cache to stage downloads that eventually go to the sd card, to avoid having sd files open too long in case the use pulls the card and to avoid partial files for too long.
  • Maintain per-application usage statistics.
  • There might be corner cases where the notifications are slightly off because different notifications might be using PendingIntents that can't be distinguished (differing only by their extras).

Architecture and Implementation

  • The content:// Uri of individual downloads could be cached instead of being re-built whenever it's needed.
  • [DownloadProvider.java] Solidify extraction of id from URI
  • [DownloadProvider.java] Use ContentURIs.parseId(uri) to extra the id from various functions.
  • [DownloadProvider.java] Use StringBuilder to build the various queries.
  • [DownloadService.java] Cache interface to the media scanner service more aggressively.
  • [DownloadService.java] Investigate why unbinding from the media scanner service sometimes throws an exception
  • [DownloadService.java] Handle exceptions in the service's UpdateThread - mark that there's no thread left.
  • [DownloadService.java] At the end of UpdateThread, closing the cursor should be done even if there's an exception. Also log the exception, as we'd be in an inconsistent state.
  • [DownloadProvider.java] Investigate whether the download provider should aggressively cache the result of getContext() and getContext().getContentResolver()
  • Document the database columns that are most likely to stay unchanged throughout versions, to increase the chance being able to perform downgrades.
  • [DownloadService.java] Sanity-check the ordering of the local cache when adding/removing rows.
  • [DownloadService.java] Factor the code that checks for DRM types into a separate function.
  • [DownloadService.java] Factor the code that notifies applications into a separate function (codepath with early 406 failure)
  • [DownloadService.java] Check for errors when spawning download threads.
  • [DownloadService.java] Potential race condition when a download completes at the same time as it gets deleted through the content provider - see deleteDownload().
  • [DownloadService.java] Catch all exceptions in scanFile - don't trust a remote process to the point where we'd let it crash us.
  • [DownloadService.java] Limit number of attempts to scan a file.
  • [DownloadService.java] Keep less data in RAM, especially about completed downloads. Investigating cutting unused columns if necessary
  • [DownloadThread.java] Don't let exceptions out of run() - that'd kill the service, which'd accomplish no good.
  • [DownloadThread.java] Keep track of content-length responses in a long, not in a string that we keep parsing .
  • [DownloadThread.java] Use variable-size buffer to avoid thousands of operations on large downloads
  • [Helpers.java] Deal with atomicity of checking/creating file.
  • [Helpers.java] Handle differences between content-location separators and filesystem separators.
  • Optimize database queries: use projections to reduce number of columns and get constant column numbers.
  • Index last-mod date in DB, because of ordered searches. Investigate whether other columns need to be indexed (Hidden?)
  • Deal with the fact that sqlite INTEGER matches java long (63-bit) .
  • Use a single HTTP client for the entire download manager.
  • Could use fewer alarms - currently setting new alarm each time database updated .
  • Obsolete columns should be removed from the database .
  • Assign relevant names to threads.
  • Investigate and handle the different subclasses of IOException appropriately .
  • There's potentially a race condition around read-modify-write cycles in the database, between the Service's updateFromProvider thread and the worker threads (and possibly more). Those should be hronized appropriately, and the provider should be hardened to prevent asynchronous changes to sensitive data (or to synchronize when there's no other way, though I'd rather avoid that) .
  • Temporary file leaks when downloads are deleted while the service isn't running .
  • Increase priority of updaterThread while in the critical section (to avoid issues of priority inheritance with the main thread).
  • Explicitly specify which interface to use for a given download (to get better sync with the connection manager).
  • Cancel the requests on more kinds of errors instead of trusting the garbage collector.
  • Issues with the fact that parseInt can throw exceptions on invalid server headers.

Code style, refactoring

  • Fix lint warnings
  • Make sure that comments fit in 80 columns to match style guide
  • Unify code style when dealing with lines longer than 100 characters
  • [Constants.java] constants should be organized by logical groups to improve readability.
  • Use fewer internal classes (Helpers, Constants...) .

Browser changes

  • Move download UI outside of browser, so that browser doesn't need to access the provider.
  • Make browser sniff zips and jars to see if they're apks.
  • Live handoff of browser-initiated downloads (download in browser, browser update download UI, hand over to download manager on retry).
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안드로이드/포팅2013.10.16 08:19
Android Build System

Android Build System

Status: Draft   (as of May 18, 2006)

Contents

Objective

The primary goals of reworking the build system are (1) to make dependencies work more reliably, so that when files need to rebuilt, they are, and (2) to improve performance of the build system so that unnecessary modules are not rebuilt, and so doing a top-level build when little or nothing needs to be done for a build takes as little time as possible.

Principles and Use Cases and Policy

Given the above objective, these are the overall principles and use cases that we will support. This is not an exhaustive list.

Multiple Targets

It needs to be possible to build the Android platform for multiple targets. This means:

  • The build system will support building tools for the host platform, both ones that are used in the build process itself, and developer tools like the simulator.
  • The build system will need to be able to build tools on Linux (definitely Goobuntu and maybe Grhat), MacOS, and to some degree on Windows.
  • The build system will need to be able to build the OS on Linux, and in the short-term, MacOS. Note that this is a conscious decision to stop building the OS on Windows. We are going to rely on the emulator there and not attempt to use the simulator. This is a requirement change now that the emulator story is looking brighter.

Non-Recursive Make

To achieve the objectives, the build system will be rewritten to use make non-recursively. For more background on this, read Recursive Make Considered Harmful. For those that don't want PDF, here is the Google translated version.

Rapid Compile-Test Cycles

When developing a component, for example a C++ shared library, it must be possible to easily rebuild just that component, and not have to wait more than a couple seconds for dependency checks, and not have to wait for unneeded components to be built.

Both Environment and Config File Based Settings

To set the target, and other options, some people on the team like to have a configuration file in a directory so they do not have an environment setup script to run, and others want an environment setup script to run so they can run builds in different terminals on the same tree, or switch back and forth in one terminal. We will support both.

Object File Directory / make clean

Object files and other intermediate files will be generated into a directory that is separate from the source tree. The goal is to have make clean be "rm -rf " in the tree root directory. The primary goals of this are to simplify searching the source tree, and to make "make clean" more reliable.

SDK

The SDK will be a tarball that will allow non-OS-developers to write apps. The apps will actually be built by first building the SDK, and then building the apps against that SDK. This will hopefully (1) make writing apps easier for us, because we won't have to rebuild the OS as much, and we can use the standard java-app development tools, and (2) allow us to dog-food the SDK, to help ensure its quality. Cedric has suggested (and I agree) that apps built from the SDK should be built with ant. Stay tuned for more details as we figure out exactly how this will work.

Dependecies

Dependencies should all be automatic. Unless there is a custom tool involved (e.g. the webkit has several), the dependencies for shared and static libraries, .c, .cpp, .h, .java, java libraries, etc., should all work without intervention in the Android.mk file.

Hiding command lines

The default of the build system will be to hide the command lines being executed for make steps. It will be possible to override this by specifying the showcommands pseudo-target, and possibly by setting an environment variable.

Wildcard source files

Wildcarding source file will be discouraged. It may be useful in some scenarios. The default $(wildcard *) will not work due to the current directory being set to the root of the build tree.

Multiple targets in one directory

It will be possible to generate more than one target from a given subdirectory. For example, libutils generates a shared library for the target and a static library for the host.

Makefile fragments for modules

Android.mk is the standard name for the makefile fragments that control the building of a given module. Only the top directory should have a file named "Makefile".

Use shared libraries

Currently, the simulator is not built to use shared libraries. This should be fixed, and now is a good time to do it. This implies getting shared libraries to work on Mac OS.

Nice to Have

These things would be nice to have, and this is a good place to record them, however these are not promises.

Simultaneous Builds

The hope is to be able to do two builds for different combos in the same tree at the same time, but this is a stretch goal, not a requirement. Doing two builds in the same tree, not at the same time must work. (update: it's looking like we'll get the two builds at the same time working)

Deleting headers (or other dependecies)

Problems can arise if you delete a header file that is referenced in ".d" files. The easy way to deal with this is "make clean". There should be a better way to handle it. (from fadden)

One way of solving this is introducing a dependency on the directory. The problem is that this can create extra dependecies and slow down the build. It's a tradeoff.

Multiple builds

General way to perform builds across the set of known platforms. This would make it easy to perform multiple platform builds when testing a change, and allow a wide-scale "make clean". Right now the buildspec.mk or environment variables need to be updated before each build. (from fadden)

Aftermarket Locales and Carrier

We will eventually need to add support for creating locales and carrier customizations to the SDK, but that will not be addressed right now.

Usage

You've read (or scrolled past) all of the motivations for this build system, and you want to know how to use it. This is the place.

Your first build

The Building document describes how do do builds.

build/envsetup.sh functions

If you source the file build/envsetup.sh into your bash environment, . build/envsetup.shyou'll get a few helpful shell functions:
  • printconfig - Prints the current configuration as set by the lunch and choosecombo commands.
  • m - Runs make from the top of the tree. This is useful because you can run make from within subdirectories. If you have the TOP environment variable set, it uses that. If you don't, it looks up the tree from the current directory, trying to find the top of the tree.
  • croot - cd to the top of the tree.
  • sgrep - grep for the regex you provide in all .c, .cpp, .h, .java, and .xml files below the current directory.

Build flavors/types

When building for a particular product, it's often useful to have minor variations on what is ultimately the final release build. These are the currently-defined "flavors" or "types" (we need to settle on a real name for these).

eng This is the default flavor. A plain "make" is the same as "make eng". droid is an alias for eng.
  • Installs modules tagged with: eng, debug, shell_$(TARGET_SHELL), user, and/or development.
  • Installs non-APK modules that have no tags specified.
  • Installs APKs according to the product definition files, in addition to tagged APKs.
  • ro.secure=0
  • ro.debuggable=1
  • ro.kernel.android.checkjni=1
  • adb is enabled by default.
user "make user"

This is the flavor intended to be the final release bits.

  • Installs modules tagged with shell_$(TARGET_SHELL) and user.
  • Installs non-APK modules that have no tags specified.
  • Installs APKs according to the product definition files; tags are ignored for APK modules.
  • ro.secure=1
  • ro.debuggable=0
  • adb is disabled by default.
userdebug "make userdebug"

The same as user, except:

  • Also installs modules tagged with debug.
  • ro.debuggable=1
  • adb is enabled by default.

If you build one flavor and then want to build another, you should run "make installclean" between the two makes to guarantee that you don't pick up files installed by the previous flavor. "make clean" will also suffice, but it takes a lot longer.

More pseudotargets

Sometimes you want to just build one thing. The following pseudotargets are there for your convenience:

  • droid - make droid is the normal build. This target is here because the default target has to have a name.
  • all - make all builds everything make droid does, plus everything whose LOCAL_MODULE_TAGS do not include the "droid" tag. The build server runs this to make sure that everything that is in the tree and has an Android.mk builds.
  • clean-$(LOCAL_MODULE) and clean-$(LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME) - Let you selectively clean one target. For example, you can type make clean-libutils and it will delete libutils.so and all of the intermediate files, or you can type make clean-Home and it will clean just the Home app.
  • clean - make clean deletes all of the output and intermediate files for this configuration. This is the same as rm -rf out/<configuration>/
  • clobber - make clobber deletes all of the output and intermediate files for all configurations. This is the same as rm -rf out/.
  • dataclean - make dataclean deletes contents of the data directory inside the current combo directory. This is especially useful on the simulator and emulator, where the persistent data remains present between builds.
  • showcommands - showcommands is a modifier target which causes the build system to show the actual command lines for the build steps, instead of the brief descriptions. Most people don't like seeing the actual commands, because they're quite long and hard to read, but if you need to for debugging purposes, you can add showcommands to the list of targets you build. For example make showcommands will build the default android configuration, and make runtime showcommands will build just the runtime, and targets that it depends on, while displaying the full command lines. Please note that there are a couple places where the commands aren't shown here. These are considered bugs, and should be fixed, but they're often hard to track down. Please let android-build-team know if you find any.
  • LOCAL_MODULE - Anything you specify as a LOCAL_MODULE in an Android.mk is made into a pseudotarget. For example, make runtime might be shorthand for make out/linux-x86-debug/system/bin/runtime (which would work), and make libkjs might be shorthand for make out/linux-x86-debug/system/lib/libkjs.so (which would also work).
  • targets - make targets will print a list of all of the LOCAL_MODULE names you can make.

How to add another component to the build - Android.mk templates

You have a new library, a new app, or a new executable. For each of the common types of modules, there is a corresponding file in the templates directory. It will usually be enough to copy one of these, and fill in your own values. Some of the more esoteric values are not included in the templates, but are instead just documented here, as is the documentation on using custom tools to generate files.

Mostly, you can just look for the TODO comments in the templates and do what it says. Please remember to delete the TODO comments when you're done to keep the files clean. The templates have minimal documentation in them, because they're going to be copied, and when that gets stale, the copies just won't get updated. So read on...

Apps

Use the templates/apps file.

This template is pretty self-explanitory. See the variables below for more details.

Java Libraries

Use the templates/java_library file.

The interesting thing here is the value of LOCAL_MODULE, which becomes the name of the jar file. (Actually right now, we're not making jar files yet, just directories of .class files, but the directory is named according to what you put in LOCAL_MODULE). This name will be what goes in the LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES variable in modules that depend on your java library.

C/C++ Executables

Use the templates/executable file, or the templates/executable_host file.

This template has a couple extra options that you usually don't need. Please delete the ones you don't need, and remove the TODO comments. It makes the rest of them easier to read, and you can always refer back to the templates if you need them again later.

By default, on the target these are built into /system/bin, and on the host, they're built into /host/bin. These can be overridden by setting LOCAL_MODULE_PATH. See Putting targets elsewhere for more.

Shared Libraries

Use the templates/shared_library file, or the templates/shared_library_host file.

Remember that on the target, we use shared libraries, and on the host, we use static libraries, since executable size isn't as big an issue, and it simplifies distribution in the SDK.

Static Libraries

Use the templates/static_library file, or the templates/static_library_host file.

Remember that on the target, we use shared libraries, and on the host, we use static libraries, since executable size isn't as big an issue, and it simplifies distribution in the SDK.

Using Custom Tools

If you have a tool that generates source files for you, it's possible to have the build system get the dependencies correct for it. Here are a couple of examples. $@ is the make built-in variable for "the current target." The red parts are the parts you'll need to change.

You need to put this after you have declared LOCAL_PATH and LOCAL_MODULE, because the $(local-intermediates-dir) and $(local-host-intermediates-dir) macros use these variables to determine where to put the files.

Example 1

Here, there is one generated file, called chartables.c, which doesn't depend on anything. And is built by the tool built to $(HOST_OUT_EXECUTABLES)/dftables. Note on the second to last line that a dependency is created on the tool.

intermediates:= $(local-intermediates-dir)
GEN := $(intermediates)/chartables.c
$(GEN): PRIVATE_CUSTOM_TOOL = $(HOST_OUT_EXECUTABLES)/dftables $@
$(GEN): $(HOST_OUT_EXECUTABLES)/dftables
	$(transform-generated-source)
LOCAL_GENERATED_SOURCES += $(GEN)
Example 2

Here as a hypothetical example, we use use cat as if it were to transform a file. Pretend that it does something useful. Note how we use a target-specific variable called PRIVATE_INPUT_FILE to store the name of the input file.

intermediates:= $(local-intermediates-dir)
GEN := $(intermediates)/file.c
$(GEN): PRIVATE_INPUT_FILE := $(LOCAL_PATH)/input.file
$(GEN): PRIVATE_CUSTOM_TOOL = cat $(PRIVATE_INPUT_FILE) > $@
$(GEN): $(LOCAL_PATH)/file.c
	$(transform-generated-source)
LOCAL_GENERATED_SOURCES += $(GEN)
Example 3

If you have several files that are all similar in name, and use the same tool, you can combine them. (here the *.lut.h files are the generated ones, and the *.cpp files are the input files)

intermediates:= $(local-intermediates-dir)
GEN := $(addprefix $(intermediates)/kjs/, \
            array_object.lut.h \
            bool_object.lut.h \
        )
$(GEN): PRIVATE_CUSTOM_TOOL = perl libs/WebKitLib/WebKit/JavaScriptCore/kjs/create_hash_table $< -i > $@
$(GEN): $(intermediates)/%.lut.h : $(LOCAL_PATH)/%.cpp
	$(transform-generated-source)
LOCAL_GENERATED_SOURCES += $(GEN)

Platform specific conditionals

Sometimes you need to set flags specifically for different platforms. Here is a list of which values the different build-system defined variables will be set to and some examples.

For a device build, TARGET_OS is linux (we're using linux!), and TARGET_ARCH is arm.

For a simulator build, TARGET_OS and TARGET_ARCH are set to the same as HOST_OS and HOST_ARCH are on your platform. TARGET_PRODUCT is the name of the target hardware/product you are building for. The value sim is used for the simulator. We haven't thought through the full extent of customization that will happen here, but likely there will be additional UI configurations specified here as well.

HOST_OS
linux
darwin
(cygwin)
HOST_ARCH
x86
HOST_BUILD_TYPE
release
debug
TARGET_OS
linux
darwin
(cygwin)
TARGET_ARCH
arm
x86
TARGET_BUILD_TYPE
release
debug
TARGET_PRODUCT
sim
dream
sooner

Some Examples

ifeq ($(TARGET_BUILD_TYPE),release)
LOCAL_CFLAGS += -DNDEBUG=1
endif

# from libutils
ifeq ($(TARGET_OS),linux)
# Use the futex based mutex and condition variable
# implementation from android-arm because it's shared mem safe
LOCAL_SRC_FILES += futex_synchro.c
LOCAL_LDLIBS += -lrt -ldl
endif

Putting modules elsewhere

If you have modules that normally go somewhere, and you need to have them build somewhere else, read this. One use of this is putting files on the root filesystem instead of where they normally go in /system. Add these lines to your Android.mk:

LOCAL_MODULE_PATH := $(TARGET_ROOT_OUT_SBIN)
LOCAL_UNSTRIPPED_PATH := $(TARGET_ROOT_OUT_SBIN_UNSTRIPPED)

For executables and libraries, you need to also specify a LOCAL_UNSTRIPPED_PATH location, because on target builds, we keep the unstripped executables so GDB can find the symbols.

Look in config/envsetup.make for all of the variables defining places to build things.

FYI: If you're installing an executable to /sbin, you probably also want to set LOCAL_FORCE_STATIC_EXCUTABLE := true in your Android.mk, which will force the linker to only accept static libraries.

Android.mk variables

These are the variables that you'll commonly see in Android.mk files, listed alphabetically.

But first, a note on variable naming:

LOCAL_ASSET_FILES

In Android.mk files that include $(BUILD_PACKAGE) set this to the set of files you want built into your app. Usually:

LOCAL_ASSET_FILES += $(call find-subdir-assets)

This will probably change when we switch to ant for the apps' build system.

LOCAL_CC

If you want to use a different C compiler for this module, set LOCAL_CC to the path to the compiler. If LOCAL_CC is blank, the appropriate default compiler is used.

LOCAL_CXX

If you want to use a different C++ compiler for this module, set LOCAL_CXX to the path to the compiler. If LOCAL_CXX is blank, the appropriate default compiler is used.

LOCAL_CFLAGS

If you have additional flags to pass into the C or C++ compiler, add them here. For example:

LOCAL_CFLAGS += -DLIBUTILS_NATIVE=1

LOCAL_CPPFLAGS

If you have additional flags to pass into only the C++ compiler, add them here. For example:

LOCAL_CPPFLAGS += -ffriend-injection

LOCAL_CPPFLAGS is guaranteed to be after LOCAL_CFLAGS on the compile line, so you can use it to override flags listed in LOCAL_CFLAGS.

LOCAL_CPP_EXTENSION

If your C++ files end in something other than ".cpp", you can specify the custom extension here. For example:

LOCAL_CPP_EXTENSION := .cc

Note that all C++ files for a given module must have the same extension; it is not currently possible to mix different extensions.

LOCAL_NO_DEFAULT_COMPILER_FLAGS

Normally, the compile line for C and C++ files includes global include paths and global cflags. If LOCAL_NO_DEFAULT_COMPILER_FLAGS is non-empty, none of the default includes or flags will be used when compiling C and C++ files in this module. LOCAL_C_INCLUDES, LOCAL_CFLAGS, and LOCAL_CPPFLAGS will still be used in this case, as will any DEBUG_CFLAGS that are defined for the module.

LOCAL_COPY_HEADERS

This will be going away.

The set of files to copy to the install include tree. You must also supply LOCAL_COPY_HEADERS_TO.

This is going away because copying headers messes up the error messages, and may lead to people editing those headers instead of the correct ones. It also makes it easier to do bad layering in the system, which we want to avoid. We also aren't doing a C/C++ SDK, so there is no ultimate requirement to copy any headers.

LOCAL_COPY_HEADERS_TO

This will be going away.

The directory within "include" to copy the headers listed in LOCAL_COPY_HEADERS to.

This is going away because copying headers messes up the error messages, and may lead to people editing those headers instead of the correct ones. It also makes it easier to do bad layering in the system, which we want to avoid. We also aren't doing a C/C++ SDK, so there is no ultimate requirement to copy any headers.

LOCAL_C_INCLUDES

Additional directories to instruct the C/C++ compilers to look for header files in. These paths are rooted at the top of the tree. Use LOCAL_PATH if you have subdirectories of your own that you want in the include paths. For example:

LOCAL_C_INCLUDES += extlibs/zlib-1.2.3
LOCAL_C_INCLUDES += $(LOCAL_PATH)/src

You should not add subdirectories of include to LOCAL_C_INCLUDES, instead you should reference those files in the #include statement with their subdirectories. For example:

#include <utils/KeyedVector.h>
not #include <KeyedVector.h>

There are some components that are doing this wrong, and should be cleaned up.

LOCAL_MODULE_TAGS

Set LOCAL_MODULE_TAGS to any number of whitespace-separated tags. If the tag list is empty or contains droid, the module will get installed as part of a make droid. Modules with the tag shell_$(TARGET_SHELL) will also be installed. Otherwise, it will only get installed by running make <your-module> or with the make all pseudotarget.

LOCAL_REQUIRED_MODULES

Set LOCAL_REQUIRED_MODULES to any number of whitespace-separated module names, like "libblah" or "Email". If this module is installed, all of the modules that it requires will be installed as well. This can be used to, e.g., ensure that necessary shared libraries or providers are installed when a given app is installed.

LOCAL_FORCE_STATIC_EXECUTABLE

If your executable should be linked statically, set LOCAL_FORCE_STATIC_EXECUTABLE:=true. There is a very short list of libraries that we have in static form (currently only libc). This is really only used for executables in /sbin on the root filesystem.

LOCAL_GENERATED_SOURCES

Files that you add to LOCAL_GENERATED_SOURCES will be automatically generated and then linked in when your module is built. See the Custom Tools template makefile for an example.

LOCAL_JAVACFLAGS

If you have additional flags to pass into the javac compiler, add them here. For example:

LOCAL_JAVACFLAGS += -Xlint:deprecation

LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES

When linking Java apps and libraries, LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES specifies which sets of java classes to include. Currently there are two of these: core and framework. In most cases, it will look like this:

LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES := core framework

Note that setting LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES is not necessary (and is not allowed) when building an APK with "include $(BUILD_PACKAGE)". The appropriate libraries will be included automatically.

LOCAL_LDFLAGS

You can pass additional flags to the linker by setting LOCAL_LDFLAGS. Keep in mind that the order of parameters is very important to ld, so test whatever you do on all platforms.

LOCAL_LDLIBS

LOCAL_LDLIBS allows you to specify additional libraries that are not part of the build for your executable or library. Specify the libraries you want in -lxxx format; they're passed directly to the link line. However, keep in mind that there will be no dependency generated for these libraries. It's most useful in simulator builds where you want to use a library preinstalled on the host. The linker (ld) is a particularly fussy beast, so it's sometimes necessary to pass other flags here if you're doing something sneaky. Some examples:

LOCAL_LDLIBS += -lcurses -lpthread
LOCAL_LDLIBS += -Wl,-z,origin

LOCAL_NO_MANIFEST

If your package doesn't have a manifest (AndroidManifest.xml), then set LOCAL_NO_MANIFEST:=true. The common resources package does this.

LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME

LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME is the name of an app. For example, Dialer, Contacts, etc. This will probably change or go away when we switch to an ant-based build system for the apps.

LOCAL_PATH

The directory your Android.mk file is in. You can set it by putting the following as the first line in your Android.mk:

LOCAL_PATH := $(my-dir)

The my-dir macro uses the MAKEFILE_LIST variable, so you must call it before you include any other makefiles. Also, consider that any subdirectories you inlcude might reset LOCAL_PATH, so do your own stuff before you include them. This also means that if you try to write several include lines that reference LOCAL_PATH, it won't work, because those included makefiles might reset LOCAL_PATH.

LOCAL_POST_PROCESS_COMMAND

For host executables, you can specify a command to run on the module after it's been linked. You might have to go through some contortions to get variables right because of early or late variable evaluation:

module := $(HOST_OUT_EXECUTABLES)/$(LOCAL_MODULE)
LOCAL_POST_PROCESS_COMMAND := /Developer/Tools/Rez -d __DARWIN__ -t APPL\
       -d __WXMAC__ -o $(module) Carbon.r

LOCAL_PREBUILT_EXECUTABLES

When including $(BUILD_PREBUILT) or $(BUILD_HOST_PREBUILT), set these to executables that you want copied. They're located automatically into the right bin directory.

LOCAL_PREBUILT_LIBS

When including $(BUILD_PREBUILT) or $(BUILD_HOST_PREBUILT), set these to libraries that you want copied. They're located automatically into the right lib directory.

LOCAL_SHARED_LIBRARIES

These are the libraries you directly link against. You don't need to pass transitively included libraries. Specify the name without the suffix:

LOCAL_SHARED_LIBRARIES := \
    libutils \
    libui \
    libaudio \
    libexpat \
    libsgl

LOCAL_SRC_FILES

The build system looks at LOCAL_SRC_FILES to know what source files to compile -- .cpp .c .y .l .java. For lex and yacc files, it knows how to correctly do the intermediate .h and .c/.cpp files automatically. If the files are in a subdirectory of the one containing the Android.mk, prefix them with the directory name:

LOCAL_SRC_FILES := \
    file1.cpp \
    dir/file2.cpp

LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES

These are the static libraries that you want to include in your module. Mostly, we use shared libraries, but there are a couple of places, like executables in sbin and host executables where we use static libraries instead.

LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES := \
    libutils \
    libtinyxml

LOCAL_MODULE

LOCAL_MODULE is the name of what's supposed to be generated from your Android.mk. For exmample, for libkjs, the LOCAL_MODULE is "libkjs" (the build system adds the appropriate suffix -- .so .dylib .dll). For app modules, use LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME instead of LOCAL_MODULE. We're planning on switching to ant for the apps, so this might become moot.

LOCAL_MODULE_PATH

Instructs the build system to put the module somewhere other than what's normal for its type. If you override this, make sure you also set LOCAL_UNSTRIPPED_PATH if it's an executable or a shared library so the unstripped binary has somewhere to go. An error will occur if you forget to.

See Putting modules elsewhere for more.

LOCAL_UNSTRIPPED_PATH

Instructs the build system to put the unstripped version of the module somewhere other than what's normal for its type. Usually, you override this because you overrode LOCAL_MODULE_PATH for an executable or a shared library. If you overrode LOCAL_MODULE_PATH, but not LOCAL_UNSTRIPPED_PATH, an error will occur.

See Putting modules elsewhere for more.

LOCAL_WHOLE_STATIC_LIBRARIES

These are the static libraries that you want to include in your module without allowing the linker to remove dead code from them. This is mostly useful if you want to add a static library to a shared library and have the static library's content exposed from the shared library.

LOCAL_WHOLE_STATIC_LIBRARIES := \
    libsqlite3_android

LOCAL_YACCFLAGS

Any flags to pass to invocations of yacc for your module. A known limitation here is that the flags will be the same for all invocations of YACC for your module. This can be fixed. If you ever need it to be, just ask.

LOCAL_YACCFLAGS := -p kjsyy

Implementation Details

You should never have to touch anything in the config directory unless you're adding a new platform, new tools, or adding new features to the build system. In general, please consult with the build system owner(s) (android-build-team) before you go mucking around in here. That said, here are some notes on what's going on under the hood.

Environment Setup / buildspec.mk Versioning

In order to make easier for people when the build system changes, when it is necessary to make changes to buildspec.mk or to rerun the environment setup scripts, they contain a version number in the variable BUILD_ENV_SEQUENCE_NUMBER. If this variable does not match what the build system expects, it fails printing an error message explaining what happened. If you make a change that requires an update, you need to update two places so this message will be printed.

  • In config/envsetup.make, increment the CORRECT_BUILD_ENV_SEQUENCE_NUMBER definition.
  • In buildspec.mk.default, update the BUILD_ENV_SEQUENCE_DUMBER definition to match the one in config/envsetup.make
The scripts automatically get the value from the build system, so they will trigger the warning as well.

Additional makefile variables

You probably shouldn't use these variables. Please consult android-build-team before using them. These are mostly there for workarounds for other issues, or things that aren't completely done right.

LOCAL_ADDITIONAL_DEPENDENCIES

If your module needs to depend on anything else that isn't actually built in to it, you can add those make targets to LOCAL_ADDITIONAL_DEPENDENCIES. Usually this is a workaround for some other dependency that isn't created automatically.

LOCAL_BUILT_MODULE

When a module is built, the module is created in an intermediate directory then copied to its final location. LOCAL_BUILT_MODULE is the full path to the intermediate file. See LOCAL_INSTALLED_MODULE for the path to the final installed location of the module.

LOCAL_HOST

Set by the host_xxx.make includes to tell base_rules.make and the other includes that we're building for the host. Kenneth did this as part of openbinder, and I would like to clean it up so the rules, includes and definitions aren't duplicated for host and target.

LOCAL_INSTALLED_MODULE

The fully qualified path name of the final location of the module. See LOCAL_BUILT_MODULE for the location of the intermediate file that the make rules should actually be constructing.

LOCAL_REPLACE_VARS

Used in some stuff remaining from the openbinder for building scripts with particular values set,

LOCAL_SCRIPTS

Used in some stuff remaining from the openbinder build system that we might find handy some day.

LOCAL_MODULE_CLASS

Which kind of module this is. This variable is used to construct other variable names used to locate the modules. See base_rules.make and envsetup.make.

LOCAL_MODULE_NAME

Set to the leaf name of the LOCAL_BUILT_MODULE. I'm not sure, but it looks like it's just used in the WHO_AM_I variable to identify in the pretty printing what's being built.

LOCAL_MODULE_SUFFIX

The suffix that will be appended to LOCAL_MODULE to form LOCAL_MODULE_NAME. For example, .so, .a, .dylib.

LOCAL_STRIP_MODULE

Calculated in base_rules.make to determine if this module should actually be stripped or not, based on whether LOCAL_STRIPPABLE_MODULE is set, and whether the combo is configured to ever strip modules. With Iliyan's stripping tool, this might change.

LOCAL_STRIPPABLE_MODULE

Set by the include makefiles if that type of module is strippable. Executables and shared libraries are.

LOCAL_SYSTEM_SHARED_LIBRARIES

Used while building the base libraries: libc, libm, libdl. Usually it should be set to "none," as it is in $(CLEAR_VARS). When building these libraries, it's set to the ones they link against. For example, libc, libstdc++ and libdl don't link against anything, and libm links against libc. Normally, when the value is none, these libraries are automatically linked in to executables and libraries, so you don't need to specify them manually.

신고

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안드로이드 젤리빈 소스 다운로  (0) 2012.10.03
Posted by code cat
안드로이드/포팅2012.04.05 14:58


Android 소스를 다운 받고 환경 구축을 할 때, jdk를 깔아야 한다.


Android 웹사이트에는 다음과 같이 하라고 나와 있다.

Installing the JDK

The Sun JDK is no longer in Ubuntu's main package repository. In order to download it, you need to add the appropriate repository and indicate to the system which JDK should be used.

Java 6: for Gingerbread and newer
$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.canonical.com/ lucid partner"
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk

Java 5: for Froyo and older
$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy main multiverse"
$ sudo add-apt-repository "deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hardy-updates main multiverse"
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install sun-java5-jdk

Note: The lunch command in the build step will ensure that the Sun JDK is used instead of any previously installed JDK.


위와 같은 방법은 우분투 10.x 에서는 잘 되나, 11.x(11.04 특히)에서는 되지 않는다.


그럴 땐 다음과 같이 하면  jdk6을 깔 수 있다.


sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ferramroberto/java
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jdk sun-java6-plugin


신고
Posted by code cat
리눅스2011.08.02 20:39
dd if=/dev/zero of=ext4.img bs=1MB count=20  // 20mb 짜리 ext4.img라는 파일을 생성

mke2fs -T ext4 ext4.img  //ext4 타입으로 ext4.img를 포맷


mkdir test //테스트용 디렉토리 생성(마운트 포인트로 이용)

mount -t ext4 -o loop ext4.img test/   //마운트

마운트가 성공됬으면(mount 커맨드로 확인), 테스트로 파일을 막 써보자.
cd test
touch TEMPFILE
mkdir BABO
...

파일이 제대로 생성됐는지 확인해보고, 언마운트를 해보자
cd ..  //test 폴더 안에서 언마운트 할라면 device busy라고 불평한다.
umount /dev/loop0  //꼭 loop0이라는 보장은 없고 아마 마운트시 available한 loop이 잡히는 걸로 안다.
                             //이 부분은 losetup으로 체크할 수 있는 걸로 안다.
cd test/
ls -al 로 확인하면 텅 빈 걸 확인할 수 있다.

다시 마운트 해보자.
mount -t ext4 -o loop ext4.img test/ 
ls -al
해보면 아까 테스트로 막 만든 파일들이 보인다.

자 그럼 이걸 가지고 뭐에 써먹냐 ?  ext4.img 자체를 파티션에 그대로 구울 경우, ext4파일 시스템을 가진 루트파일 시스템 등을 구축 할 수 있는 것이다.  EXT4f라고 썼지만 다른 파일 시스템도 이렇게 해서 굽는게 가능하다.  물론 안드로이드용 파일 시스템을 만들 땐 이걸 안 썼다. 언제 저 짓해서 맨날 구워줄 수 있단 말인가?  다른 방법에 대해서는 다음 기회에~
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